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CAT-220 - CA Clarity PPM v12 Professional - Dump Information

Vendor : CA-Technologies
Exam Code : CAT-220
Exam Name : CA Clarity PPM v12 Professional
Questions and Answers : 40 Q & A
Updated On : November 8, 2017
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CAT-220 Questions and Answers


Answer: A


QUESTION: 36

Which operation is defined in Web Service Description Language (WSDL)?

  1. Insert
  2. Delete
  3. Update
  4. WriteObject

Answer: D


QUESTION: 37

To deploy and run CA Clarity PPM, what do you need to install? (Choose three)

  1. Client
  2. Database
  3. Reporting Server
  4. Application Server
  5. Connector for Microsoft SharePoint

Answer: B, C, D


QUESTION: 38

In the CA Clarity PPM Process Engines event flow, what is the function of the Wakeup Signal?

  1. Displays detailed Process Engines instance information
  2. Triggers the Background Engine as soon an event is fired
  3. Interacts with CA Clarity database on a consistent basis to proceed with the workflow steps or instructions
  4. Keeps track of all the executing process, controls the event flow, and helps manage the Workflow Execution

Answer: B


QUESTION: 39

Which security settings do you configure in CSA? (Choose three)

  1. LDAP settings
  2. Single Sign On
  3. SSL Encryption
  4. SMTP Server Authentication
  5. Environment Port Authorization

Answer: A, B, C


QUESTION: 40

In NSQL syntax, what is a group of similar or related data elements from one or more tables called?

  1. Metric
  2. Dimension
  3. Aggregation
  4. Concatenation

Answer: B


CA-Technologies CAT-220 Exam (CA Clarity PPM v12 Professional) Detailed Information

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Where can I take a certification exam?
You can register to take an online proctored certification exam from your home or office, or schedule your exam at a Kryterion testing center location near you. Kryterion has testing centers in over 750 locations across the globe.
What is the format of a certification exam?
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For how long is the certification valid, and what is the recertification policy?
Certification credentials are based on the major product release (such as r14), and the credential is issued as r14.x to account for subsequent minor point releases. There is no annual requirement to recertify for the same major release of a product (r14) or a minor point release (r14.1). An updated certification exam will be available for each major product release (r15, r16, and so forth). CA Employees and Partners are expected to get recertified for each major product release for which they require a credential.
Periodic updates to the exams ensure compatibility with minor point releases (such as r14.1).
On rare occasions CA Technologies may deem a minor point-release (such as r14.5) significant enough to warrant certification, in which case a new certification exam will be made available with the credential that bears that specific point release (for example, r14.5).
Which products have certifications?
Check the CA Technologies Certification page for a current table of products and related credentials. Click on the credential of interest to access resources that will help you prepare for the exam.
What is the duration of the exam?
The exams are generally 90 minutes in length.
How do I create an account and register for an exam?
Create your user account at webassessor.com/catechnologies. You may use your account to take any number of certification exams.
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Contact the Kryterion Testing Network Support team at 800-403-6199 (US and Canada) or +1 602-281-3591 Monday 7:00 a.m. through Saturday 7:00 a.m. (Pacific Time) or send an email to [email protected]
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Login at webassessor.com/catechnologies and follow the instructions to prepare for your online proctored exam. You will need to install the Sentinel software and create your biometric profile, after which you can register for your exam and schedule a date and time. You must create your biometric profile at least 24 hours prior to your online proctored exam. Refer to the guide below to review the technical requirements for your external webcam, microphone, and computer:
Preparing for Your Exam
If you have system or setup related questions the instructions are not able to answer, contact the Kryterion Online Proctored (OLP) Services Support team at [email protected]
How can I receive help and support finding a testing center or finding available dates and times to travel to a testing center?
Contact the Kryterion Testing Network Support team at 800-403-6199 (US and Canada) or +1 602-281-3591 Monday through Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Pacific Time) or send an email to [email protected]
Is there a cost associated with a Certification exam?
Yes, the price for a Certification exam is USD 150-200 depending on your country, and pricing is posted at webassessor.com/catechnologies in the online registration page.
How do I pay for an exam?
The exam fees are collected and administered directly through the KryterionOnline Webassessor website.
What is the cancellation policy and can I reschedule my exam?
If you registered to take your exam at a Kryterion testing center, you can cancel or reschedule your exam up to 72 hours before your scheduled exam time. To reschedule, log into your account at webassessor.com/catechnologies, click on the details of your registered exam, and select 'Reschedule'.
If you registered to take an online proctored (OLP) exam, you can reschedule your exam up to 24 hours before your scheduled exam time. To reschedule, log into your account at webassessor.com/catechnologies, click on the details of your registered exam, and select 'Reschedule'.
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What happens if I miss my exam appointment?
If you miss your exam appointment, you will be charged the full amount and will not be eligible for reimbursement. Terms and details will be provided to you at the time you schedule your exam. Note for CA Technologies employees: If you use a voucher to register for an exam and fail to cancel or reschedule, CA Technologies is still charged a fee, and these charges are reported to CA Technologies management.
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No, there are no standing discounts available to customers and partners for the CA Technologies certification exams. The CA Partner Program may leverage the Cost Relief program during certain periods in order to distribute vouchers for nominal discounts. However, the exams are priced reasonably. Check webassessor.com/catechnologies for pricing by country.
Will customers or partners be reimbursed for exams?
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Can partners leverage the Cost Relief program for Certification?
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Recommended Learning Paths and other resources are available to help you prepare for the certification exams.
Please visit the CA Technologies Certification page to download the Exam Study Guide that outlines the recommended training for each product certification and the topic areas tested.
Where can I register for product training?
Customers: You can register for product training through the CA Education Portal. To quickly access the recommended product training in the CA Education Portal, click on each course in the Learning Path.
Partners: You can register for product training through the Partner Catalog of the CA Education Portal. To access the Partner Catalog, log into Communities at CA using your partner credentials, go to CA Education, and choose “Find a Course.” It is important to note that unless you are logged into Communities at CA with your partner credentials, you will not be able to view the Partner Catalog. For questions, contact CA Customer Care.
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Yes, if you feel you possess the required knowledge, you may register and take an exam. However, CA Technologies recommends that you take the associated courses, perform all labs, and gain hands-on experience prior to attempting an exam. Be sure and review the Exam Study Guide that shows the topic areas being tested.
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After you have completed your exam, you will immediately receive a message by email with your score and a topic-level report.
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If I did not pass an exam on my first attempt, will I receive a discount on future attempts?
The published fee associated with the first exam will be required for all future attempts. There are no discounts offered for multiple attempts.
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Yes, upon successful exam and certification activity completion, you will receive an email from CA Technologies within five business days that contains the Certification from CA Technologies diploma and logo usage guidelines.
How can a third party verify my certification status?
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Do the exams change, and do the topics covered by an exam change?
CA Technologies may modify an exam, test objective/topic, and the requirements for obtaining or maintaining certification at any time in its sole discretion. It is your responsibility to keep informed of such modifications. The posted Exam Study Guides identify exam objectives and serve as a basis for exam preparation.
What is the exam security policy at CA Technologies?
Only qualified candidates who demonstrate competency by successfully passing the CA Technologies certification exam will be awarded certification credentials. Prospective certification candidates are encouraged to prepare for the exam using the Exam Study Guide and other materials available on the CA Certification page.
To safeguard the integrity of the certification program, CA Technologies requires all candidates to behave in an ethical manner and to comply with the rules of the third-party test center for on-site proctoring and on-line proctoring. The validity of the certification program depends on the exam content remaining secure and undisclosed to other potential certification candidates. CA Technologies will not tolerate cheating, fraud, or misconduct, which includes but is not limited to the following:
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Using a CA Technologies certification logo or credential to which you are not entitled
CA Technologies reserves the right to take any actions it deems reasonably appropriate in the case of suspected misconduct or violation of the terms of the Non-Disclosure Agreement, including, but not limited to, cancelling an exam result, revoking exam or certification status, terminating use of the Designation, requiring a candidate to retake an exam, banning a candidate from the certification program, and reporting misconduct to the candidate’s employer. CA Technologies considers cheating a serious offense that warrants disciplinary action, up to and including termination of employment.
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Accreditation is recognition and validation for those who have demonstrated superior levels of business, sales and technical expertise that address customer solution needs in areas of operation, administration, design, implementation and troubleshooting.
Accreditation involves successfully completing a timed exam in an open-book environment. The exam may be taken at a CA learning center or from the comfort of your living room or office.
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FAQs
What is CA Accreditation?
Accreditation is recognition and validation which distinguishes individuals who have demonstrated superior levels of business, sales and technical expertise that address customer Enterprise solution needs in areas of operation, administration, design, implementation and troubleshooting.
CA Accreditation involves successfully completing a timed exam in an open-book environment. The exam may be taken at a CA learning center or in your living room or office. CA Accreditation testing allows you to use your real-world problem-solving experiences to solve real-world IT problems.
Do I have to pay for Accreditation exams?
There is no cost to take an Accreditation exam at this time.
How do I become CA Accredited?
You must successfully complete the Accreditation exam with a passing score. You may take the exam at a CA learning center or online in your home or office.
How do I prepare for my exam?
The CA Accreditation exam assesses your knowledge of a CA product. Students who complete the associated CA Education courses achieve higher scores on CA Accreditation Exams.
What do I need to have ready when I take the exam?
You can take an Accreditation exam at a CA Training Center, in your home, or at your office. For your convenience, all Accreditation exams are available through the CA Education Portal. Exams are delivered online and are open book. You should test your Internet connection ahead of time, and you may refer to course materials during the exam.
What is the format of an Accreditation exam?
CA Accreditation exams are timed exams consisting of multiple choice questions.
What does a typical exam question look like?
Example Question: Which protocols does Single Logout support?
1. SAML 1.0
2. SAML 2.0
3. SAML 1.1
4. Liberty V1.x
5. Web Services Federation (WS-Federation)
A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 2, 3, and 4
C. 2, 4, and 5
D. 3, 4, and 5
Example Question: Which component of CA Single Sign-On installs SAML authentication schemes?
A. Affiliate Agent
B. Application Agent
C. Web Agent Option Pack
D. Policy Server Option Pack
Example Question: What is the MOST appropriate step to perform when initialization fails following installation of eTrust Federation components?
A. Check the configuration environment.
B. Uninstall and reconfigure all components.
C. Compare all library files installed to identify the failure reason.
D. Ensure installed products are version compatible with one another.
How do I register for an exam?
Customer, partner and employee exams are hosted online in the CA Education Portal. To take an Accreditation exam, follow these steps:
Customer and Partner Registration
Go to the CA Education Course Catalog:
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In the Keywords field, enter the product name followed by “exam.” You can also search for your exam by entering the course code.
To register for an exam, click the Add to Cart button. At that point, you will be prompted to log in, or register for the first time, before you can continue.
After you complete your registration and enrollment, review your selections and click the Finish button. You can then view your selection in the Training to Do List under the My Learning tab.
When you are ready to take the exam, select Go to Content to launch the exam. Please do not select Go to Content until you are ready to complete the exam; otherwise, it counts as an attempt.
Additional Information for Partners
Partners are eligible* to receive:
Free web-based training (including all 100-400 level sales, technical and support courses)
Discounted instructor-led training
For assistance accessing these benefits, please contact CA Customer Care.
*Partner must be an active CA partner.
Please note that if you do not see the course or exam that you are looking for, it is necessary to first log in to the CA Education Portal, and a complete list will be available.
Employee Registration
Go to the CA Employee Education Portal Course Search page.
In the Keywords field, enter the product name followed by “exam.” You can also search for your exam by entering the course code.
When you are ready to take the exam, select Go to Content to launch the exam. Please do not select Go to Content until you are ready to complete the exam; otherwise, it counts as an attempt.
Difficulty accessing the exam?
We recommend that you use a reliable connection to sit for the exam. If you lose network connectivity while writing the exam or if you prematurely exit the exam and can no longer access it, take the appropriate corrective action:
For Customers and Partners:
Please contact CA Customer Care. Note the exam code, and let the Support personnel know that you require an exam reset due to network connectivity causing a lock-out.
For CA Employees:
Open a Service Desk issue to request Exam User Reset:
Select Create a New Request.
If prompted to search knowledge base, select Cancel.
In the Applications section, look under E for Education Portal, and then Education Portal Support.
Be sure and provide the exam code.
What is the exam passing score? Does it change?
CA makes best efforts to maintain passing scores of 80%. The difficulty level of each Accreditation exam is adjusted by a team of internal and third-party experts to allow specific passing and fail rate thresholds. Exceptions to the 80% score occur during Beta testing of new exams, when the passing score may be lowered temporarily (for Beta test takers and early-adopter test takers) while the optimal difficulty level is being established. All of these efforts are aimed at establishing and maintaining the fairness, validity and reliability of CA exams.
Can I retake the exam if I fail?
If you fail an exam you may take the exam again immediately or at your convenience. You have two attempts at exams. If you are not successful, then you should take available training.
How do I print my Accreditation certificate?
After you have passed the exam, you may print your CA Accreditation certificate. In the CA Education Portal, go to My Learning, then Training Completed.
CA Education Portal Login:
Customers and Partners
Employees
For learning path completion diplomas, please contact [email protected] indicating the specific role-based path, and we will email the diploma to you in about three business days. If you do not receive your diploma within two weeks of successful learning path completion, please email us and we will be glad to email you a new one. Be sure and add [email protected] to your allowed sender list.
How do I obtain a copy of my score report?
Log in to your student account in the CA Education Portal, select My Learning, then Training Completed to see a list of your completed exams and scores.
CA Education Portal Login:
Customers and Partners
Employees
Why can’t I see all of my exam records in the CA Education Portal?
Exams taken prior to January 19th, 2010, will be updated in your Training Completed transcript.
How long is my accreditation valid? Does it expire?
CA Accreditations do not expire. Your Accreditation will always be valid for the product release for which you were accredited. Additional exams will be required for Accreditation on future product releases.
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CA Technologies CAT-220

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    The concrete slab bridge that incorporates site visitors into Columbus from the west is at the juncture of the eastbound I-70 and that i-270.
    “We had a tanker that rolled over and caught fireplace below that bridge,” observed Matt Bruning, press secretary, ODOT. “and brought about such severe harm to one of the spans of the bridge that we really needed to exchange it. That become completed via emergency federal funding — they front us the money it truly is alread CAT-220y allotted to Ohio so that we might do the restoration and we pay that again once we both reach an contract with the coverage business or the trucking enterprise to repay that cash back.”
    Following shutting down the affected component to motorway and dealing with the fire, ODOT group of workers straight away put together the method to prepare a contract for bids. The tender turned into made on the day of the hearth and of the four businesses that submitted, S&S become chosen on July 2, with the 30-day completion length beginning on July three.
    “They did a brilliant job in getting that bridge re-opened in 21 days,” said Bruning. “It also included the ramp beneath the bridge as a result of when the tanker caught hearth, it damaged the concrete pavement.”
    S&S additionally became awarded a value plus contract for the building of a crossover on I-70.
    “We took the eastbound I-70, crossed it over to the westbound aspect and had bi-directional site visitors going to get across the incident,” said Bruning. “due to the incident, there became no time to bid so we simply said ’do it and bill us.’”
    The crossover work, when accomplished, can charge ODOT $653,000.
    Tim Keller, ODOT’s bridge engineer, introduced on for the emergency work, had no longer viewed such damage before.
    “It took us about two minutes to come to a decision that the concrete span had to get replaced,” he spoke of, “however it took a bit more time to examine what to do with the columns and different parts. We had about an hour earlier than we asked the established contractors to show up on web page to talk about the scope of carrier.”
    Cooperation become fundamental to repairing the damage without delay and thoroughly, and the first assembly with S&S happened quarter-hour after the contract changed into awarded
    “We wanted the contractor to be successful,” stated Keller, “and we put a really aggressive schedule together and wanted it to be accomplished as quickly as possible. I had given their challenge manager my cell phone number and he known as me every day for the first week. We agreed on a regularly occurring restore approach by using 6 p.m. Shelly & Sands had a couple of truly respectable ideas that we accredited.”
    The fashioned scope for the work referred to as for the removal of two columns, which might have required temporary support for the bridge as considered one of its spans become being retained, however the contractor noted ’as opposed to eradicate the columns, why no longer encapsulate them?’
    “It was a extremely decent conception and it saved time and eliminated the deserve to aid the span,” pointed out Keller. “one of the crucial reinforcing metal particulars necessary to be clarified. The contractor wanted to do a couple of issues that had been a little bit diverse from the common bridge design plans to meet nowadays’s requirements. We advised them to use the long-established plans and a few of the reinforcing steel that they had at their store became a bit of different, which matched nowadays’s standards. We decided on this concern right away and stored working. Such choices have been made on a daily foundation during the work.”
    ODOT had its laboratory examine the damaged materials and concrete, from the deck and cores from the columns and strengthened metal — the day after the fire, and it had the consequences tomorrow.
    “1,800 levels Fahrenheit is fairly extreme and to a definite extent,” observed Keller, “that you could’t plan for such warmth. a fireplace on a bridge is so very infrequent and it’s not one the design standards for our bridges. a fire of the duration and heat that befell, that you can’t design against it, but the bridge held out for somewhat a long time and after the fire become put out, it changed into still standing.”
    ODOT always assessments and updates its concrete formulation and it does not vicinity a fire retardant in the mixes.
    “There isn’t a need as concrete does actually neatly in a fire to dissipate heat and this bridge didn't collapse,” said Keller, who notes that steel receives insurance plan in vertical building. “It’s no longer a requirement for our structures, nor may still it, because the occurrence of such an adventure is uncommon. The steel on the damaged bridge did not soften — it became smooth and deflected beneath the heat — that become interesting.”
    Shelly & Sands assigned Robert Hunt Jr., senior bridge engineer, to control the assignment. Tom O’Brien, a different S&S bridge engineer, became on web site first for the company on July 1 and as of July 2, each engineers had been concerned with the project.
    “It turned into lucky that it wasn’t a structural metal bridge, because if it had been, it might have been months to comfy the beams and different materials to rebuild the bridge,” he spoke of, “however the reality it was a slab bridge ensured that the building materials had been extraordinarily purchasable. The hearth damaged the underside of the deck and the concrete had popped faraway from the reinforcing metal — the steel become dangling from the underside of the deck. definite columns took the brunt of the blaze and have been greatly damaged. It became evident that you could not put site visitors on the bridge.”
    The S&S bid become submitted at 2 p.m. and at 2:15 p.m. Hunt and his team of workers had their first meeting with the ODOT, and at three:30 p.m. a meeting became held with the ODOT bridge engineer on website.
    “via 6 p.m. a consensus was reached so far as the most advantageous means to achieve their desires as rapidly as possible,” observed Hunt. “The proprietor modified the scope according to our assistance and developed a plan that could top of the line go well with the supply of substances and accelerate the challenge. This became over the July four weekend and there have been no substances obtainable.
    “So we pulled out of stock reinforcing metal that became available,” he talked about. “This material turned into extra left over from prior ODOT projects.”
    The crossover work, completed in two and a half days by means of 24/7 work, was given to S&S as the fireplace became burning.
    “We took place to have a night-time paving operation a mile down the I-70,” mentioned Hunt, “and ODOT determined that they needed to bypass site visitors around the bridge, so on an emergency/charge-plus basis, they hired us, because we were within the area, to design the crossovers, put in pavements, and divert site visitors faraway from the bridge and onto the different facet of the street.”
    youngsters S&S had 30 days to do the bridge work, they opted for twenty-four/7 shifts to get the bridge job performed greater hastily.
    “We expended over 200 man-hours per-day,” he referred to, noting that the crews ranged between five and 15 guys reckoning on class of work being done. i used to be requested at one factor all over an interview ’why don’t we try this the entire time?’ It’s vital to have in mind this mission turned into an exception to the guideline and that the trade could not maintain a tempo like this on all tasks.
    “We had a core group of likely 10 people and we brought in others once we needed them,” he brought. “every now and then people have been off for a day. after we needed a definite skill, we brought definite americans on. a few of our crew participants had over 100-hour weeks for two weeks.”
    “I provide Bob Hunt and Shelly & Sands a lot of credit for the scheduling and getting the device and americans for the work,” pointed out Keller. “They did an outstanding job and the key turned into to speak the goals, objectives, and schedules.”
    Two subcontractors had been introduced in for the bridge work — one to erect the reinforcing metal within the deck and yet another, Vasta construction, to install the carbon fiber wrap on the pier columns and caps.
    “They worked round our work and were on web site almost each weekday,” stated Hunt, “inserting in long hours.”
    For the crossover work, a lot of small subcontractors had been brought in for striping, milling, and many others.
    The bridge work and damaged pavement beneath the bridge required the use of 530 cu. yds. (405.three cu m) of concrete, and 50 heaps (45.three t) of reinforcing steel. The crossover work, led by way of Jeff Harper, assignment manager, placed 1,525 tons (1,383 t) of stone and a pair of,575 lots (2,336 t) of asphalt in 2 and a half days with a crew various between 15 and 20.
    The crews confirmed their abilities to take care of emergency situations and put their abilities to the verify.
    “They knew that their efforts were preferred through the business,” spoke of Hunt, “and that they diagnosed the value of this work to the city of Columbus, Shelly & Sands and ODOT — they took delight in that and the successful outcome.”
    Hunt wired the roles of Josh Edwards, the onsite superintendent; Tom O’Brien, the onsite project engineer; and Ryan Grezlik, the established bridge superintendent for the bridge project.
    “They were the three that had been instrumental, more than any person,” he noted, “for the success.”
    “It didn’t take long to get our personnel into the move of the assignment,” referred to Edwards, who has been with S&S for seven years, “but the hours have been long and our crews have been drained by using the end of the challenge. Coordination of so many employees in a confined work area become a large challenge.”
    O’Brien, who joined the company in 2008, has labored on many bridge projects.
    “when you get past the shock of seeing such hurt, your intellect starts off to show out concepts of the choicest strategy to repair it,” he pointed out. “once we had been awarded the contract, we automatically began producing sketches and drawings to fabricate reinforcing metal, kind the columns and caps and design the falsework to support the new deck.”
    Grezlik, a 13-yr veteran of S&S, appeared forward to the problem.
    “The preliminary mobilization of crucial equipment over the July four holiday turned into the greatest problem we faced in getting a great delivery out of the gate,” he talked about.
    Mechanics have been on call to fix any equipment for both projects. For the bridge work, S&S assigned a Hitachi Z-450 excavator with a Genesis GRD-four hundred cruncher; Cat 220 and 320 excavators, a Cat 930 wheel loader, a few smaller rubber tired backhoes and a considerable number of air compressors, manlifts, forklifts and light-weight flora.
    “There changed into loads of jackhammer work,” mentioned Hunt.
    The crossover work had operators the use of a wide variety of excavators, wheel loaders, compactors, dozers, rollers, dump trucks and asphalt paving equipment.
    On Oct. 6 Keller and Hunt offered a lecture on the bridge work at an association for Bridge building and Design (important Ohio chapter) and American Society of Civil Engineers (vital Ohio area) luncheon.
    “The presentation generated lots of interest and questions from the attending engineers and contractors,” observed Hunt. “This was an peculiar assignment with wonderful challenges, affecting over a hundred,000 cars a day traveling via this fundamental relevant Ohio corridor.”
    Keller mentioned that the restoration work turned into regular, however that the instructions learned for ODOT was the magnitude of communications.
    “We had a couple of missteps at the start,” he spoke of, “but those have been resolved and the technique changed into successfully achieved between our public information officers (PIO). lots of people wanted counsel abruptly and our District Deputy Director Ferzan Ahmed and our PIOs did a pretty good job. It turned into all the time ’talk, speak and communicate’ and in an emergency, it’s very true. everyone understood the place we had been going and the targets that we had.
    “When our chief engineer talked about that on Friday at noon the crossover could be in region — he communicated that very effortlessly,” he noted, “we knew the goal and all and sundry then needed to figure out what we needed to do to meet it.”
    to date ODOT has not received any requests from other DOTs and concrete producers in regards to the consequences of the assessments of the broken materials, but Keller observed that this could be as a result of information of the incident remaining native.
    “We gathered items of debris to have at our lab in case anybody desires to investigate them,” he talked about. “I actually have given a few shows locally to a variety of professional corporations on the hearth and repair work. we've the statistics and we’ll share it with any one who requests it.”
    Keller also pointed out that “ODOT receives blamed for issues we shouldn’t get blamed for and sometimes we get blamed for issues we should get blamed for,” he observed, “but in this case, maybe we don’t get the credit for issues we did correct and we received it right in so many areas and made lots of first rate decisions. As a company we’re very pleased with what we accomplished.”

    PHIL 220: moral concernscourse Description This course surveys several controversial moral topics, and a variety of philosophical views on each and every. subject matters may consist of abortion, cloning, euthanasia and suicide, sexism, prostitution, pornography, torture, and animal rights. [Note: Formerly PHIL 220.]
    typical terms may additionally now not mirror online offerings.

    assessment of FIV-C an infection of cats as a function of treatment with the protease inhibitor, TL-3 Retrovirology. 2004; 1: 38.
    PMCID: PMC535546
    1Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps analysis Institute, La Jolla, us of a
    2Department of Experimental medication, The Scripps research Institute, La Jolla, united states
    3Department of Animal resources, The Scripps research Institute, La Jolla, u . s .
    4Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps analysis Institute, La Jolla, CA, 92037, united states
    #Contributed equally.
    got 2004 Sep sixteen; permitted 2004 Nov 19.
    Copyright © 2004 de Rozières et al; licensee BioMed imperative Ltd.
    here is an Open access article distributed under the phrases of the creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/through/2.0), which allows for unrestricted use, distribution, and copy in any medium, offered the original work is correctly referred to.
    this article has been referred to by different articles in PMC. abstract background
    The protease inhibitor, TL-three, proven vast efficacy in vitro against FIV, HIV and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), and exhibited very strong defensive outcomes on early neurologic ameliorations within the CNS of FIV-PPR infected cats. in this analyze, we analyzed TL-3 efficacy the usage of a highly pathogenic FIV-C isolate, which explanations a severe acute section immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality prices.
    effects
    Twenty cats were contaminated with uncloned FIV-C and half were handled with TL-3 whereas the different half have been left untreated. Two uninfected cats were used as controls. The widely wide-spread CAT-220 health and the immunological and virological reputation of the animals was monitored for eight weeks following infection. All infected animals grew to become viremic unbiased of TL-3 treatment and 7 of 20 FIV-C infected animals developed severe immunodepletive ailment together with tremendously (p ≤ 0.05) larger viral RNA loads as compared to asymptomatic animals. A marked and revolutionary raise in CD8+ T lymphocytes in animals surviving acute section an infection become noted, which turned into not evident in symptomatic animals (p ≤ 0.05). common viral loads were decrease in TL-three treated animals and of the 6 animals requiring euthanasia, four had been from the untreated cohort. At eight weeks publish an infection, half of the TL-three treated animals and only one of six untreated animals had viral hundreds below detection limits. evaluation of protease genes in TL-3 treated animals with larger than regular viral masses published sequence adaptations relative to wild category protease. In specific, one mutant, D105G, imparted 5-fold resistance in opposition t TL-3 relative to wild category protease.
    Conclusions
    The findings indicate that the protease inhibitor, TL-three, when administered orally as a monotherapy, did not evade viremia in cats infected with high dose FIV-C. youngsters, the modest decreasing of viral hundreds with TL-three treatment, the stronger survival price in symptomatic animals of the treated cohort, and the lower common viral load in TL-three handled animals at eight weeks put up infection is indicative of a therapeutic impact of the compound on virus infection.
    heritage
    feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that infects home and feral cat populations worldwide. contaminated cats exhibit similar disorder patterns as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected sufferers via developing diverse immuno-depletive symptoms mutually referred to as got immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). As with HIV, variations in virulence among the many different FIV subgroups are evident [1-4]. for this reason, the cat represents an amenable animal model for testing certain anti-HIV-1 drug modalities in vivo.
    one of the crucial important breakthroughs in HIV-1 medication has been using specific inhibitors of the viral aspartic protease household as a part of a drug cocktail, referred to as extremely active anti-retroviral remedy (HAART), with the highest quality aim of suppressing HIV-1 replication in patients to low or undetectable ranges [5-8]. useful HAART remedy continues to be elegant on the building of latest drug modalities because of the swift mutation expense of HIV-1, resulting in drug resistance building [9]. for this reason, a pretty good small animal model for evaluating new drugs and coverings for HIV is of paramount value. Experimental testing of latest protease inhibitors in cats has been of restrained success because of the ineffectiveness of HIV-1 particular protease inhibitors towards FIV [10,11]. The promising construction of the protease inhibitor TL-three, which inhibits FIV, HIV-1 and SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) infections in vitro with similar effectiveness [12] led us to research its efficacy in the cat mannequin. initial in vivo reports using the predominantly neurotropic FIV-PPR strain, showed that TL-three remedy lowered plasma viral masses and resulted in a significant protecting impact in opposition t neurologic ameliorations within the CNS in FIV contaminated cats [13]. in the existing analyze, we employed the particularly pathogenic FIV-C isolate (CABCpady00C), which causes a fulminant acute section sickness within the periphery, with high loss of life rates from acute phase immunodeficiency disorder [1].
    outcomes In Vivo infection
    Twenty-two female certain pathogen-free (SPF) cats had been randomly divided into five organizations. neighborhood 0 consisted of two cats, which acquired TL-3 remedy devoid of viral infection and were regarded controls. group 1 (n = 5) bought 0.1 ml (one zero five RNA copies/ml) of FIV-C-contaminated plasma I.V. with TL-3 drug medicine. group 2 (n = 5) bought 0.1 ml FIV-C-infected plasma with out TL-three remedy. group three (n = 5) obtained 0.5 ml FIV-C-contaminated plasma with TL-3 and group 4 (n = 5) bought 0.5 ml FIV-C-contaminated plasma devoid of TL-3 treatment. Blood (1 ml) was drawn from all cats ahead of the birth of the scan, at weekly intervals for the primary 4 weeks after infection, and at bi-monthly intervals from week 4 until the end of the examine. complete blood counts were assessed as a function of an infection and TL-3 medication. in addition, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses were performed to assess plasma viral load. All animals were continually observed for any alterations in regularly occurring health. No enormous transformations had been mentioned between viral load or ailment phenotype between the two plasma dosages utilized in infection and subsequent dialogue will now not distinguish between these two companies.
    by week 6 submit infection, seven animals (221, 222, 220, 234, 229, 219, 215) had been showing scientific signs of debilitating acute phase ailment. four of the seven affected animals (215, 219, 220, 234) were from the untreated organizations, and three animals (222, 221, 229) have been from the TL-3 handled companies. signs in all seven symptomatic cats numerous from conjunctivitis, anorexia, corneal ulcerations, and gingivitis to raises in temperature, dermatitis and marked lethargy. despite intensive antibiotic medication, the well-known state of health of 6 of the cats didn't improve (221, 220, 234, 229, 215, 219) and they got mandated euthanasia between six to seven weeks submit-infection. Cat 222 (TL-three treated) answered to antibiotic remedy and recovered from acute section signs.
    handle and contaminated cats gained weight at approximately the equal cost right through the primary 4 weeks submit an infection, inspite of drug medicine status (figure , records expressed as a ratio to beginning weight for each and every animal). despite the fact, at 6 weeks post infection, three animals within the + TL-3 cohort (figure , upper panel) and three animals within the -TL-three cohort (lessen panel) had misplaced weight. All three of the animals in the -TL-3 cohort (bottom panel, shown in crimson; 215, 220, and 234) required mandated euthanasia earlier than the next weighing at week eight. Cat 229 within the TL-three handled cohort additionally required mandated euthanasia in advance of week eight. Cat 221 within the + TL-3 cohort changed into euthanized on the equal day as cat 229, however a closing weight turned into not recorded. Cat 219 of the -TL-three cohort had a normal weight at week 6, but required euthanasia at week 7, with an approx. 10% weight loss relative to week 6 (data now not shown in figure). accordingly, weight reduction at week 6 befell with onset of extreme acute section ailment. Cat 222 in the TL-3 treated neighborhood (upper panel) spoke back to aggressive rehydration and antibiotic remedy, gained weight, and survived the acute part. Cat 223 was not ever extraordinarily symptomatic and it is uncertain why this animal confirmed a dip in weight at week 6 which it recovered via week 8.
    Cat weight ratios as a characteristic of FIV an infection. Cats contaminated with FIV-C in the presence and absence of TL-3 treatment were weighed consistently all over the path of infection. Graphs depict weight of particular person cats as a ratio to respective starting ...
    Brainstem auditory evoked skills adjustments (BAEPs)
    outdated reviews the usage of FIV-PPR showed that the isolate induces marked and constant delays in BAEPs of infected cats and that TL-three could reverse this effect [13]. We, therefore, analyzed the FIV-C contaminated animals for identical BAEP delays with or without TL-three treatment. Animals were analyzed at two-week intervals for the primary eight weeks of the test. interestingly, no delays in BAEPs had been cited with FIV-C infection (records not shown) in spite of high viral masses within the periphery (see below).
    Viral load quantification
    Plasma viral RNA loads have been measured at standard intervals all through the experimental duration to consider viral load adjustments in cats handled with or without TL-3. Viral masses ranged from undetectable to approximately 9 × 109 RNA copies/ml plasma (figure ). Examination of plasma viremia at 2 weeks (i.e. before an energetic immune response) printed little modifications in viral hundreds between cats within the TL-3 handled and untreated cohorts (figure ). In contrast, after 2 weeks of an infection, the maximum viremias were present in cats no longer receiving TL-three (examine + TL-three to -TL-three, figure ). furthermore, of the 6 FIV symptomatic cats that have been euthanized as a result of the severity of medical ailment, 4 of those animals had acquired no TL-three and 3 of those cats introduced with the optimum viral load (evaluate open symbols to stuffed symbols, determine ).
    Plasma viral a whole lot of FIV contaminated cats as a characteristic of TL-three treatment and sickness. (A), normalized viral load (copies/ml × 106) at week 2; (B), and at top viremia between weeks 0 – 6.5 in FIV contaminated cats handled with TL-3 (+TL-three, ...
    analysis of viremia patterns in particular person cats during the initial eight week assessment period yielded additional adjustments within the TL-three handled vs. untreated organizations. youngsters infected cats showed an preliminary viral height in the second week submit-an infection, by way of week four, viral hundreds decreased for each and every cat and the standard viral load for symptomatic and asymptomatic cats changed into equivalent (Figures and ). although, by way of week 6 the symptomatic community had a normal viral load of two × 108 copies/ml, 27 instances greater virus than the general viral load of asymptomatic cats (evaluate Figures and ). Half of the 6 symptomatic cats were euthanized at week 6 as a result of severe disease. The final three symptomatic cats (all from the untreated community) had an ordinary viral load of three.2 × 108 copies/ml at 6.5 weeks (determine ) and required euthanasia through week 7. inside the asymptomatic cohort, three (223, 224, 230) out of eight TL-three handled cats had reduced viral masses by way of week 4. Their viral masses remained low all through week 6 and at week eight, four of 8 surviving TL-3 handled animals had viral load ranges under detection limits. Of the six surviving animals that had no longer obtained TL-three, just one cat (233) had a viral load under detection limits at week eight (determine ).
    particular person plasma viral hundreds as a characteristic of TL-3 medication over an 8 week length. Normalized viral hundreds in (A) symptomatic (euthanized) and (B) asymptomatic cats. each and every cost corresponds to the volume normalized viral load (copies /ml) between weeks ...
    Leukocyte changes
    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were remoted from total EDTA-handled blood from every animal and CD4+ and CD8+ T phone quantitations have been performed by using circulate cytometry and leukocyte counts. Absolute values for CD4+ T cells confirmed a customary lowering vogue in both the TL-3-treated and untreated cohorts when all animals have been averaged in every group and CD8+ T telephone counts and neutrophils didn't display colossal variance from control values (information not shown). despite the fact, evaluation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells counts of symptomatic cats as in comparison to medicine-matched asymptomatic animals confirmed unique ameliorations (figure and , resp.). The CD4+ T mobilephone inhabitants of the symptomatic cats diminished step by step over the primary 6-week period (figure ). CD4+ T cellphone counts of identically handled cats that showed no signals of disorder also reduced, but less precipitously than those of animals eventually requiring euthanasia as a result of severity of sickness (p ≤ 0.05). Uninfected manage animals maintained their T cellphone values during the identical time body. The CD8+ inhabitants of T cells showed an even extra drastic decrease within the symptomatic animals compared to the asymptomatic infected animals (determine ). Between weeks two and 4, the CD8+ T mobile inhabitants in the symptomatic animals showed a small rebound from week 2, then declined through week 6 post infection. In contrast, CD8+ T telephone counts in medication-matched asymptomatic animals improved greatly (p ≤ 0.05) from week 2 onward, in keeping with a strong CD8+ T phone response in the covered cats.
    Peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte levels as a characteristic of clinical influence over 8 weeks. A) total CD4+ cells per ml usual and common error of the mean; B) complete CD8+ cells per ml regular and standard error of the mean. Symbols: ●: uninfected ...
    per previous studies [14-16], we also followed alterations within the total neutrophil counts within the symptomatic FIV-C infected cats. within one week post-an infection, neutrophil numbers accelerated markedly in cats 220 (10, 962 cells/μl) and 234 (eleven, 926 cells/μl) as compared to other cats with similar TL-three medication (regular = 6880 ± 2847 cells/μl). through week 4, neutrophil values fell drastically within the identical two cats (220: 558 cells/μl; 234: 416 cells/μl) as well as in cats 215 (420 cells/μl) and 221 (400 cells/μl). via week 6, four of the symptomatic cats had neutrophil counts close zero. best cat 220 a bit of recovered its neutrophil phone count (3675 cells/μl) earlier than mandated euthanasia.
    Protease break out variants
    Drug power prompted viral resistance to protease inhibitors represents one of the vital essential hurdles of HIV HAART medicine regimens [17,18]. HIV and FIV proteases share best 23–28% universal identity at the protein level, yet the enzymatic energetic web page residues are nearly similar [19], allowing a effortless aspect-through-side comparison. When analyzing the surviving cohort of animals that had obtained TL-3 medicine, we cited excessive viral hundreds in some cats (determine ; 222, 228, 231, 232) that remained accelerated (except 228) between weeks 6 and 8, relative to different cats (determine ; 223, 224, 230) that had vastly lowered viral hundreds. We, therefore, analyzed plasma samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic TL-three handled animals to seek expertise drug-resistance. The protease gene became cloned from week 6 plasma of the two symptomatic TL-3 handled cats (221 and 229) and sequenced. Twenty particular person protease clone sequences printed a wild-class protease gene sequence (records not shown). We then chose cats 231 and 228, two TL-three-handled asymptomatic cats with incredibly high viral hundreds in week 6 (determine ), as well as cat 222, which overcame its sickness syndrome with drug remedy. Cloning and sequencing of the protease gene published a number of enjoyable mutations (table ). The aspartic acid to glycine factor mutation at FIV protease residue one zero five (D105G) passed off in cats 231 and 222. The equivalent web page in HIV protease is residue 88 (HIV88N), which is associated with construction of resistance to some HIV protease inhibitors [20]. different doubtlessly vital aspect mutants cloned from cat 231 had been the H72R (HIV63L) and N55D (HIV46M) from week 6 plasma and M107R (HIV90L) from week 8 plasma. The equivalent HIV residue break out mutants display a variety of levels of resistance towards present protease inhibitors [20]. extra varied factor mutations, lying backyard of the FIV protease active web page or having no obvious vital HIV equivalents had been also observed (table ). The protease genes had been cloned into expression vectors, expressed and purified for enzymatic analysis. The findings published that many of the mutants couldn't be exceptional from wild-classification FIV-C protease as to TL-3 susceptibility. although, mutant D105G exhibited a Ki of forty seven.three nM as compared to 9.9 nM for wild-classification, according to a 5-fold increase in resistance to TL-3.
    FIV Protease get away Mutants (HIV equal residue)
    discussion
    The protease inhibitor, TL-three, confirmed huge efficacy in opposition t FIV, SIV and HIV in tissue lifestyle [12], as well as towards drug-resistant HIV isolates [21]. in addition, TL-three treatment had a really effective shielding impact on early neurologic modifications within the CNS of FIV-PPR contaminated cats [13]. however, molecularly cloned FIV-PPR reasons little acute phase sickness in the periphery. We, hence, sought to examine TL-three efficacy in vivo within the context of the incredibly pathogenic, uncloned CABCpady00C species (FIV-C) [1], which factors a severe acute section immunodeficiency syndrome, with high early mortality costs. besides the fact that children only partial insurance plan became afforded with the aid of TL-3 in our experiences, the outcomes are promising in that usual height viral loads in some cats had been lower in the presence of drug, even within the face of a totally aggressive infection (determine ).
    Of 20 cats infected with uncloned FIV-C, seven animals confirmed signs of immunodepletive disease early on (figure ) and developed full-fledged acute phase AIDS symptoms with anorexia, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcerations, gingivitis and marked lethargy via week 6, mandating euthanasia of six animals. The symptomatic cats had viral RNA hundreds tremendously bigger (>108 RNA copies/ml, p ≤ 0.05) than asymptomatic infected animals independent of drug remedy. This discovering suggests that the severe viral infection severely compromised the immune device leading to immunodeficiency and the building of concomitant AIDS, as evidenced through the swift loss of CD4+ T cells in addition to neutrophils within the affected cats all the way through the primary few weeks (figure ). Cats receiving TL-3 remedy had lessen peak viral hundreds in comparison to cats now not receiving TL-three at weeks 4 and eight, indicating that the protease inhibitor reduced systemic enlargement of viral infection. previous experiences have correlated disorder progression with excessive preliminary top viral hundreds [22]. Of the 5 out of eight cats handled with TL-3 and having higher viral loads at weeks 4 and 8 in comparison to non-TL-three-treated cats, three (222, 228, 231) had been evaluated for FIV resistance to TL-three. none of the protease genes recovered from cat 228, whose viral stages fell below detection at week eight, confirmed evidence of TL-three resistance. although, cats 222 and 231 have been discovered to harbor virus in the plasma that encoded TL-three resistant protease. In certain, a D105G mutant demonstrated a 5-fold resistance to TL-three relative to wild category protease, which can also point out the onset of drug resistance building and clarify the larger viral tiers in one of the crucial TL-3 handled cats. training of isogenic virus containing the D105G aspect mutation will allow the direct determination of knowledge drug resistance.
    curiously, TL-three handled cats with optimum viral masses (221 and 229) developed extreme disease syndromes, which suggests that TL-3 efficacy become limited to a specific viral threshold during this analyze. as soon as the edge has been crossed, TL-3 may also no longer be in a position to overcome the entire-blown, acute, viral infection, leading to swift onset of immune suppression.
    We were unable to reveal any correlation between humoral antibody responses and medical result (information not shown). youngsters, a consistent observation become a marked and modern enhance of CD8+ T cells in animals surviving the intense section an infection and a lack of such responses in animals that required euthanasia within the first eight weeks following an infection. besides the fact that children not formally validated, the findings imply a powerful telephone-mediated response within the surviving animals contributed to controlling the viral infection.
    The above analyses underscore the herbal model in the response to FIV challenge in outbred cats, comparable to the observed variation in responses to HIV infection in people. however, more consistent responses, both in peak viral hundreds (determine ) and in lymphocyte counts (figure ) had been considered when animals had been analyzed as a function of disorder severity. as a result, the question arises as as to if there is a genotypic link to susceptibility. Upon shut scrutiny of the parental heritage pattern, we followed that one male in particular (96AGQ1) had sired eight of the experimental animals with three distinct ladies (table ). Two of his offspring (213, 214) had been randomly positioned into the uninfected handle group, while of the last six offspring, 4 (215, 219, 220, 221) succumbed to FIV brought on ailment. one of the surviving siblings (222) turned into within the TL-3 treatment community and exhibited conjunctivitis and viable corneal ulceration and changed into mildly to reasonably lethargic. Cat 222 received Baytril remedy and fluid substitute therapy and at last recovered from her signs. The final sibling (216) under no circumstances showed any detectable signals of ailment all through the scan. although complicating the analyses and statistical cures, the variable responses with FIV an infection of cats parallels those accompanied with HIV infection in humans and as a consequence affords a critical mannequin for look at of infection and medication modalities. As with humans, cats are outbred, which complicates defining susceptibility markers. besides the fact that children, opting for the genetic foundation for susceptibility in the cat may additionally yield important clues to an identical phenomena in people.
    Viral protease inhibitors are of paramount value for HIV medication and a hit tempering of viral an infection. despite the fact, drug resistant break out variants are a vital consideration in treatment protocols [17,18]. however we previously didn't isolate TL-3-resistant FIV in vitro, the findings here imply that in vivo, drug resistance to the compound may also enhance. The results were no longer sudden in that we had been capable of increase TL-three resistant HIV variations [21] and it seemed not going that FIV would show an exception. The discovering of drug resistant mutants, truly, strongly indicates that the tom cat/FIV mannequin is effective within the evaluation of the potential of different protease medicine and drug cocktails to suppress virus infection and limit drug resistance construction.
    Conclusions
    The findings point out that the protease inhibitor TL-3, when given orally as a monotherapy, didn't stay away from viremia in cats infected with a high dose challenge with FIV-C and immense virus masses had been evident in circulation during the intense phase (between 2–6 weeks post infection) in all contaminated animals, even with drug regimen. normal top viral masses within the acute part were reduce in TL-3 handled animals, but variability become such that the numbers didn't attain statistical significance. however, of six animals that required euthanasia, four have been from the untreated cohort and two had been from the TL-3 handled neighborhood. additionally, at eight weeks publish infection, half the surviving TL-3 treated animals had viral masses under the detection limits, whereas only one of six untreated animals had markedly reduced viral masses. for this reason, therapeutic benefit became noted with TL-3 medicine, even within the face of an aggressive FIV an infection.
    The findings additionally exhibit clear alterations in the lymphocyte responses of animals that succumb to acute part disorder versus those that continue to exist to the asymptomatic part. probably the most mentioned change turned into in the lack of a rise in CD8+ mobilephone numbers starting round three weeks post infection in animals that eventually required humane euthanasia versus a pronounced and critical increase in CD8+ T cellphone numbers in animals that survived the intense phase.
    certain animals that received TL-three had bigger than average viral hundreds after the extreme phase. Analyses of the protease genes of FIV quasi-species established in these animals printed sequence diversifications relative to protease of wild type FIV-C. One particular protease, cloned and expressed from two TL-three-handled animals, contained the mutation D105G, which imparted 5-fold resistance against TL-three relative to wild type protease. This can also symbolize the initial ranges of drug resistance development and preparation of this mutation within the context of isogenic virus will address this subject. The findings imply that the cat mannequin will function a advantageous animal model for look at of resistance development in opposition t lentivirus infections.
    materials and methods Animals
    22 feminine intention-bred 8–9 week historical kittens bought from Liberty Laboratories were inspected upon arrival for indications of affliction, examined by a veterinarian and weighed. Animals were maintained in a 2-week quarantine and observed for any signals of disease previous to the beginning of the examine. IACUC number ARC sixty one JAN 3.
    Viral infection
    Plasma samples (one hundred and five RNA copies/ml) from a cat, that had died from an acute an infection with CABCpady00C (FIV-C), were kindly offered via Dr. E. Hoover, of Colorado State university. Cats were injected I.V. with both 0.1 ml (one hundred and five RNA copies/ml) or 0.5 ml of plasma.
    Drug Dosing
    All strategies for care of cats throughout dosing as well as dosing strategies have been mandated by using TSRI's IACUC. Oral TL-3 (L-Iditol,1,2,5,6-tetradeoxy-1,6-diphenyl-2,5-bis [N-[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]-L-alanyl-L-valyl]amino]) [12] medication was initiated in 12 cats, three days ahead of infection of ten of the twelve animals with FIV-C. All TL-three handled animals obtained 20 mg TL-3 by using tablets at eight hour intervals, for approx. the primary 7.5 weeks of the scan. Dosage changed into then doubled to 40 mg TL-3 per dose at eight hour intervals for an further week for the two handle animals and the eight surviving animals in the TL-three handled, infected cohort. No opposed consequences had been cited within the uninfected, TL-three treated controls.
    Evoked Potentials
    Uninfected and FIV-infected animals had been intermittently scheduled for analyses of evoked potentials together with the blood sampling, including testing for each auditory and visible evoked potentials as up to now described [23]. once recordings have been comprehensive, a blood pattern become amassed and animals again to the vivarium.
    clinical comparison
    Animals have been examined every day and in case of fitness issues further remedy/diagnostics were initiated. Animals with abnormal weight, or on antibiotics were positioned on supplemental feeding with moist food and Nutrical. Dehydrated animals bought subcutaneous fluid remedy. extra affected animals received supportive care and medicinal drugs, which includes BID administration of antibiotics (Baytril), BID subcutaneous fluid therapy, BID temperature contrast, BID utility of antibiotic ophthalmic ointment supportive care. Any animals that required huge supportive care (TID fluid remedy, TID drive feeding) were euthanized. Euthanasia of analysis animals was performed with strict adherence to NIH workplace of Laboratory Animal Welfare protocols.
    Blood collection and Peripheral Blood Separation
    Blood samples (1 ml/animal) were gathered weekly right through the primary month of the analyze after which each two weeks thereafter, as described [13]. Samples were placed in EDTA blood tubes (1 cc/tube) for extra use.
    Plasma become separated from blood by means of centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes at room temperature. Blood cells were resuspended in 3 ml PBS and PBMC were separated from buffy coats by means of density gradient centrifugation the use of Ficoll-Hypaque Plus (Amersham Biosciences, Sweden). PBMC were washed as soon as in PBS and twice in PBS/2% FBS for movement cytometry analyses.
    Statistical evaluation
    Statistical p values for the FIV-C viral load were decided by using the pupil's two-tailed t-check (paired, two-tailed distribution between the handled and non-treated community and the symptomatic vs asymptomatic community). Statistical p values for the weekly total CD4 and CD8 mobilephone counts had been additionally determined through the pupil's two-tailed t-verify (paired, two-tailed distribution compared to final analysis stages at week 0).
    circulation Cytometry analysis
    Two-colour flow cytometry evaluation become carried out on cells stained with mouse α-pussycat CD4 FITC and mouse α-tom cat CD8 PE (Southern Biotech, Birmingham, AL). Anti-mouse IgG1κ FITC and PE (BD PharMingen, San Diego, CA) were used as isotype controls. Cells had been fixed with 2% PFA in advance of analysis performed on a FACScan circulate cytometer (Beckton Dickenson Immunocytometry methods) the usage of the mobile Quest software software.
    RNA Isolation and Reverse Transcription
    Plasma for weeks 0, 2, four, 6 (terminal features for cats 215, 221, and 229), 6.5 (terminal features for cats 219, 220, and 234), and 8, were remoted from entire blood via centrifugation and kept at -20°C. Viral RNA was extracted using the QiaAmp Viral RNA Isolation package (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) in accordance with company's directions with mild changes: Plasma samples (280 μl) were lysed in buffer AVL (1,one hundred twenty μl) (Qiagen) for 10 minutes at room temperature within the presence of service RNA (10 μg/ml) and an exterior Kanamycin (KAN) RNA spike. Equal amounts of the external RNA spike (109 copies RNA /280 μl plasma), akin to the 1.2 kb KAN gene (Promega, Madison, WI), changed into used to normalize plasma volumes between samples and to relevant for pattern loss from viral RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. An on-column DNase/ RNase free (Qiagen) incubation step for 10 minutes at room temperature changed into brought to eliminate residual cellular DNA. Complimentary DNA (cDNA) changed into generated in a 20 μl complete reaction the use of 13 μl of sample RNA, 0.5 μl (2 μM inventory) every of KAN and FIV particular reverse primers (sequences beneath) and StrataScript reverse transcriptase, following the company's protocol (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). After incubation, every cDNA sample became diluted in water to 30 μl and saved at -80°C for use in real-time PCR.
    actual-Time Quantitative PCR
    25 μl precise-time PCR reactions were set up containing 2X Platinum Quantitative PCR SuperMix-UDG (12.5 μl) (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), ahead, reverse primers and probe combine (7.5 μl), and cDNA target (5 μl). The combo was incubated at 50°C for two minutes, 95°C for 10 minutes, then cycled at 95°C for 15 seconds and 60°C for 60 seconds 55 instances, using the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection system (applied Biosystems, Foster metropolis, CA). records had been analyzed using the ABI 7700 Sequence Detection utility. forward and reverse primers (10 nM, one hundred nM, closing awareness respectively) used in true-time PCR were made at IDT, (Coralville, IA), while the fluorescein-dabsyl Amplifluor UniPrimer (one hundred nM final attention) become bought from Serologicals (Norcross, GA). The primer sequences used for actual-time PCR are as follows:
    FIV reverse-transcriptase ahead: 5'-ACTGAACCTGACCGTACAGATAAATTACAGGAA GAACCCCCATA-three'
    FIV reverse-transcriptase reverse: 5'-TGTTAATGGATGTAATTCA TAACCCATC-three'
    KAN ahead: 5'-ACTGAACCTGACCGTACACGCTCAGGCGCAATCAC-3'
    KAN reverse: 5'-CCAGCCATTACGCTCGTCAT-3'
    general Curves and heritage Detection
    To investigate the relative replica numbers of KAN and FIV from plasma samples, a linear regular curve became generated with the aid of plotting 10-fold dilutions (5 × 108 to five × 102 copies per well) of dsDNA plasmids of established reproduction number (log scale), in opposition t the cycle threshold (Ct) determined for that cost. The pET28 vector (Novagen) became used because the goal plasmid for the KAN gene, whereas a plasmid containing the molecular clone of FIV-C become used for the FIV reverse-transcriptase gene. Calculated values for each and every plasma pattern symbolize relative replica numbers for the functions of assessment between individual samples.
    Cloning, Purification and analysis of Protease
    Complementary DNA (cDNA) turned into synthesized from remoted plasma viral RNA of contaminated cats. The cDNA pool become used as a template for PCR reactions using 5' primer MFIVCPL5' (5'-GATTTATAAATCATATG GCATATAATAAAGTGGGTACCACTACAACATTAG-three'), which provides an NdeI limit web page, methionine, and alkaline to the N-terminal of the protease and 3' primer MFIVCPL33' (5'-CTGAGATCTGAGCAAGCTTTTACATTACTAATCT AATATTAAATTTAACCATG TTATC-3'), which provides a stop codon and a Hind III restriction website to the C-terminus of the protease. The amplified PCR product was gel purified and cloned into pCR-TOPOII vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) for sequencing. selected DNA of mutants, N55D, H72R, D105G, and M107R had been digested with Nde I/Hind III and ligated into pET21a expression vector (Novagen). The mutant FIV-C proteases were expressed in Rosetta pLysS cells (Novagen) and purified as prior to now described [24].
    Enzyme kinetics of FIV-C protease were assayed on the flourogenic substrate Arg-Ala-Leu-Thr-Lys(Abz)-Val-Gln/Phe(NO2)-Val-Gln-Ser-Lys-Gly-Arg-NH2. The awareness changed into decided through lively-web page titration with inhibitor TL-3. Inhibitor constant (Ki) of TL-three against mutant FIV-C protease changed into analyzed as described [25].
    Competing pursuits
    not one of the authors have commercial pursuits or direct association with a company it really is advertising and marketing TL-3. J.H.E. is a co-author of a patent software regarding use of protease inhibitors like TL-3 reported here, containing small P3 residues, as inhibitors of HIV and FIV.
    Authors' Contributions
    S.R. and C.H.S contributed equally to this work and performed all tissue culture analyses, purification and characterization of mobilephone populations remoted from PBMC, statistical analyses, and coaching of outcomes for publication. Quantitative PCR analyses became carried out by using D.A.S. k.J.C. changed into responsible for all in vivo animal work, including TL-3 administration and oversight of veterinary look after the animals. S.H-R. performed measurements of brainstem auditory evoked talents changes. S.H., B.E.T, and J.H.E. acted as mentors for the a lot of sides of the mission, oversaw the writing of the manuscript, and supplied area and funding to carry out the work.
    Acknowledgements
    The authors need to thank Dr. Edward Hoover of Colorado State university for presenting uncloned FIV-C used in these reports, Michael Carlson for technical tips and Jackie Wold for administrative suggestions. We additionally need to thank the AIDS resource and Reference Reagent program for contracting the synthesis of TL-three and featuring the volume of compound required for these studies. D.A.S. become supported by means of the NIH/NINDS practising provide 5 T32 NS41219-02. This analysis changed into supported by using delivers R01 AI40882 and R01 AI48411 of the hypersensitivity and Infectious diseases Institute of the national Institutes of fitness and P30 MH6221 from the intellectual health Institute of the Institutes of fitness.
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A These options have now been added to the CMA SmartDashboard in the IPS tab B The Merge and Override options are not supported in R71 C The options are available in Global Smart Dash boad / IPS tab in Profiles options D From the Provider-1 Properties in MDG, select the Global Policies tab and enable the check box 'Enable legacy SmartDefense merging options' Answer: B QUESTION: 171 You are the responsible administrator for two customers managed by your MSP You must configure each CMA with local objects as well as rules You have to configure the IPS accordingly In addition, you will configure and assign Global Rules for your customers What minimum rights do you need at the MDS? A Provider Superuser B Customer Manager C Customer Superuser D Global Manager Answer: D QUESTION: 172 One of your customers will not renew their subscription for the IPS Software Blade, and decides to cancel their subscription early What happens if they don't allow the IPS service to expire? A When the subscription has ended, the IPS falls back to run only checks that were active with the first version published B Since the customer is still subscribed to IPS service via MDG, all things run as before The MSP has to take care that customers will renew their subscription C New updates are not possible after the IPS service blade has ended, but all checks being downloaded before are still configured and active D IPS update service is free of charge and therefore there is no time limit for it Answer: A QUESTION: 173 You manage several customers with Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Two of the customers need to be connected via a global VPN using VPN Communities in a Global Rule In the MDG, you configure both Gateways to be enabled for Global use Then you define a Global VPN Community in the Global SmartDashboard How do you configure a rule so that encrypted HTTP traffic is accepted between the corresponding Gateways? A In the menu of the Global SmartDashboard, select Policy > Convert To Simplified Mode, follow the Wizard and define a rule accepting HTTP traffic that fits to the community listed in the column VPN B It's possible to define Global VPN Communities, but it is not possible to use them in a Global Rule Base C In the Global SmartDashboard, define a rule accepting the wanted traffic In the column VPN select the VPN community y5o8u have defined D After having defined a Global VPN Community, the Global Rule Base needs to be assigned to both customers The VPN can only be defined in each (local) CMA individually Answer: A QUESTION: 174 Steve is the Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser of an MSP having a Provider-1 R71 environment with 2 MDS Manager systems, 4 MDS Containers and 2 MLM's One of the customers of the MSP requires redundancy for the CMA's Steve has already added a secondary CMA, but the customer insists on having one more CMA What is the best way to do this? A Steve can add a third CMA on the same MDS as the secondary CMA as a single customer can only use up to two MDS Containers for CMA's B Provider-1 only supports 2 CMA's per customer, so Steve will have to install a Security Management Server for backing up the CMA C This is not possible as Provider-1 supports only one backup / secondary CMA D Steve can add a third CMA on another MDS Container Answer: D QUESTION: 175 Select the correct statement about the following Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1environment example A This will never work because all the MDS containers must be on the same LAN and it is also a license violation B This setup will not work as the MDS Co5n9tainer-HA can only host CMA-HA's C This will not work as the number of CMA-HA's must be equal to the number of primary CMA's D This setup will work without any issues as Provider-1 supports a mix of Primary and Secondary CMA's on the same MDS Container as long as they are of different customers Answer: D QUESTION: 176 In Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71, the Security Management backup server can be installed on: A any platform where Security Management Server is supported B any platform where Security Management Server is supported except Windows or Nokia IPSO C SecurePlatform or Windows Server D only SecurePlatform Pro Answer: B QUESTION: 177 As in the example below, MDS-ManagerAndContainer is Active whereas MDS-Manager2 is in Standby mode If a Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 Superuser logs into MDS- ManagerAndContainer in Read/Write mode using the MDG while the first user is still logged in, and another Provider-1 Superuser tries to log in to MDS-Manager2, what will happen? The second user will: A get an application error and the MDG will close B get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access Hence, he will be allowed to log in with Read-Only access C also be allowed to log in through the MDG in Read/Write mode and they can both make changes to the Provider-1 configuration within the MDG D get a message informing him that another user is logged in with Read/Write access, and an option to disconnect the first user will be given QUESTION: 178 Which of the following is the correct syntax for mirroring all CMA's from FirstMDS to SecondMDS? A cma_mirror_all -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS B p1shell/mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 C mdscmd mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 D mirrorcma -s FirstMDS -t SecondMDS -c 2 Answer: C QUESTION: 179 Let's assume that your Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 configuration has only one MDS You want the installation to be redundant, so you decide to set up a secondary MDS Container and Manager While completing the installation, you need to provide the activation key The installation is completed after a reboot The final steps are taken with the MDG connecting to the primary MDS Which of the following statements is TRUE? A When the activation key is provided, synchronization at MDS as well as CMA level is started automatically B The first step is to define the secondary MDS in the MDG and to provide the activation key After this is done, it is not possible to synchronize at MDS level only because only the complete configuration of a MDS can be synchronized (including all CMAs) C Before synchronization can start, both the activation key and performing an Install Database are necessary D When the secondary MDS is defined in the MDG and the activation key has been correct, synchronization at the MDS level can be started immediately Answer: D QUESTION: 180 NetSec MSP has Multi-Domain Management with Provider-1 R71 in their New York network They have 1 MDS Manager and 1 MDS Container on a Solaris server with 10 CMA's NetSec has recently setup a network in Dallas and wants to use the Provider-1 MDS Container hosting backup CMA's for all the 10 customers The management is not in favor of buying a Solaris Server, hence they are asking if they can use SecurePlatform on Intel hardware How can NetSec implement this requirement? SecurePlatform in Dallas and then associate the two to enable High Availability' B As it is not possible to have a secondary CMA on a different operating system, NetSec will have to install 10 Security Management Servers to backup the CMA's' C They can have the new Provider-1 R71 MDS Container on SecurePlatform and host all the secondary CMA's on this MDS; Provider-1 R71 HA supports different operating systems' D They will have to buy a Solaris Server to install the MDS Container and host the secondary CMA's on that as it is required for the HA systems to be running the same operating system and version' Answer: C QUESTION: 181 When importing the configuration of a Management Server, the CMA is also imported The name of the CMA is the same name that the Management Server had before How do you configure a name change to the CMA before the CA is re- established again? A At the MDS, change to the corresponding CMA context using the mdsenv command Then issue the command fwm sic_reset to reset the CA completely B In the MDG, select the CMA you want to change With a right-click on the object, select edit and change the name in the window that opens C In the CLI of the MDS environment, issue the command fwm sic_reset You will be asked which SIC you want to reset Select the appropriate CMA and the name as well as the CMA will be changed D The name of a CMA cannot be changed by design because this name is used in certificates Answer: A QUESTION: 182 Importing an existing Management Server configuration into a MDS via CLI might be useful First, the new customer needs to be defined After having defined the CMA, an existing configuration can be imported How can this be done? A At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate B It is not possible to import a configuration using CLI This can only done using the MDG C At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate –s -t D At the CLI of the MDS type\linecma_migrate -t –s Answer: A CheckPoint 156-815-71 Exam (Check Point Certified Managed(R) Security Expert R71) Detailed Information Training & Certification Check Point offers a wide range of education programs, professional certifications and self-study resources developed in-house by Check Point security experts. Training is available from our global network of Authorized Training Centers (ATC). TRAINING CALENDAR FIND A TRAINING CENTER CERTIFICATION FAQ Training Together with our Authorized Training Centers, we offer comprehensive technical training and certifications for IT security professionals who deploy and manage Check Point Security solutions. Entry-level Security Awareness Text book and course covers important principles of CyberSecurity from a vendor neutral perspective. Concepts include issues of physical and document security along with data protection and recovery in the event of data or systems loss. Security Principles Associate Core Security Administrator Training Three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. Security Administrator R77.30 Security Administrator R80 Core Security Expert Training Advanced three-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. Security Engineering NextGen Security Training Learn how to deploy the latest cyber-security solutions to defend and prevent today’s evolving threats Threat Prevention Secure Web Gateway Advanced Security Training Learn to manage virtualized security in high-end networks and advanced security optimization techniques. MDSM with VSX Security Master Custom Training Certifications Check Point Certifications mean expertise with the technology that secures the internet for all Fortune and Global 100 companies. The benefits of becoming Check Point certified include the skills to support and sell Check Point products, 2-year expert access to our SecureKnowledge database and advanced product documentation. Getting Started: A Check Point UserCenter or PartnerMap account is required to receive certification benefits. You can create a new account at the User Center. If you are not sure about your account, please contact Account Services for verification. You also need a Pearson VUE account, and the email address should be the same as your UserCenter account. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Essential certification for IT Admins who manage daily operations of Check Point Security solutions. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30 The next level of certification proves troubleshooting skills and the ability to maximize the performance of security networks. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Managed Security Expert (CCMSE) Advanced certification proves expertise in Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. Course Description and Exam Information Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most technical certification proves advanced use of time-saving commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. GENERAL INQUIRIES Q: What is the difference between “Certification” and “Accreditation”? A: Check Point recognizes those professionals who have passed a rigorous, thorough examination process with a “Certification”. Certifications are based on proctored exams derived from comprehensive job models and detailed instructional objectives. Accreditations are derived from product specific content exams delivered in a less formal examination setting and recognize an individual’s effort to stay current on the latest products. Q: What versions are available? A: Our Current certifications are based on R77.30 and the new R80. Q: How long will R77.30 be available? A: Current projections have the R77.30 exams retiring 3rd quarter 2017. Q: How long does a certification last? A: Certification, like security, must be kept current to be truly effective - which is why we strongly encourage you to constantly refresh and keep your certification current. Certifications expire after 24 months. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point professional certification exams are proctored through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3.500 locations worldwide. You can register for any Check Point exam and earn your certification by visiting Pearson VUE website and creating a Web Profile. Q: Do I have to take classes in order to take the exams? A: No, it is possible to take an exam with only your own experience or self-study using the Check Point courseware, but we highly recommend taking a class instead. Instructor-led training accelerates and focuses your learning, gives you hands-on experience and an opportunity to make mistakes in the lab, and is much more cost-effective than self-study in your spare time. CHECK POINT EDUCATION SERVICES CERTIFICATION FAQ Updated September 2016 2 Q: What certifications are available? A: Check Point certifications are structured around comprehensive job models for administration, engineering (Expert), enterprise management, and advanced systems (Security Master). Certifications include: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate Principles of Network Security #156-110 CCSA Check Point Certified Security Administrator Check Point Security Administration #156-215 CCSE Check Point Certified Security Expert Check Point Security Administration #156-215 Check Point Security Engineering #156-315 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Certifications Related Courses Exams CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master Check Point Certified Security Master #156-115 CCMSE Check Point Managed Security Expert Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension #156-820 Q: What are the prerequisites for each Check Point certification? A: Check Point certifications are designed to build upon the knowledge and skills of the previous courses, reinforcing lessons learned and extending your competencies with ever more complex and valuable skills. Certifications Prerequisites CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate None CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 TCP/IP and routing fundamentals CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 CCSA R77 CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Any prior CCSE up to R65 CCSM Check Point Certified Security Master R77 CCSE R77 CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 CCSE R77 Updated September 2016 3 Q: What courses should I take to prepare for the exams? A: To help prepare for exams, you should consider the following corresponding courses: Core Security courses establish a strong foundation in essential Check Point product knowledge and skills Exams Courses Certifications #156-110 Principles of Network Security CCSPA Check Point Certified Security Principles Associate #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R80 CCSA R80 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R80 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSA R77 Check Point Certified Security Administrator R77 #156-215 Check Point Security Administration R77 CCSE R77 Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 #156-315 Check Point Security Engineering R77 #156-915 CCSE R77 Update CCSE R77 Update Check Point Certified Security Expert R77 Advanced Specializations recognize your proficiency and expertise in specific disciplines and technologies Exams Courses Certifications #156-115.77 Check Point Security Master R77 CCSM R77 Check Point Certified Security Master #156-820.77 Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension CCMSE R77 Check Point Managed Security Expert R77 Q: Is study material available? A: Exam objectives are posted on the Education Services page for reference, but all official training materials are provided when you attend instructor-led training through one of our Authorized Training Center (ATC) partners. Q: Where can I find training classes? A: Courses are offered through our network of over 230 Authorized Training Centers (ATC) around the globe. Use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training today! Q: Are classes available globally? A: Yes! We have Authorized Training Centers (ATC) in over 42 countries worldwide - just use our partner locator to find an ATC near you and sign up for training. If for any reason you can't find an ATC near you, send an email to us directly at [email protected] and ask about on-site training options. Q: How long are the classes recommended for certification exams? A: Check Point recommends minimum time frames for each course, but individual Authorized Training Centers (ATC) may choose to adjust the time to offer more 'intensive' courses or to cover topics in more detail. You should check with your local ATC for the exact length of each course to be sure the time fits your schedule. Updated September 2016 4 Q: I know that CCSA certification is a prerequisite for CCSE. Can I achieve a CCSE R80 certification with a CCSA R70 or later certification? A: No. Since R80 is a completely new product version with many new features, only CCSA R80 certification provides the background necessary to be a prerequisite to CCSE R80 certification. However, if you have a CCSE based on NGX or the Blade technology, you are eligible to take our upgrade exam #156-915 to earn your CCSE R80 certification. Q: When will my R77 certifications expire? A: Check Point Certifications are good for 24 months. Q: My R70 certifications have already expired. Do I need to start over with CCSA R80 to update to CCSE R80? A: Actually, you don’t. Even though your certification has expired, the eligibility for updates to the latest version has not. If you ever held a CCSE certification, you are eligible for the Update exam. Q: Why has the 156-915.77 exam been removed from the exam list? A: The 156-915.77 exam was retired as soon as the 156-915.80 exam was released. Check Point only offers updates to the latest version of the product. Q: How can I learn about updates in the Check Point Certified Professional Program? A: You can always find the latest information on our News and Updates page, including special offers on the most indemand courses and certifications. Back to top MY INFORMATION Q: Why is my Check Point Professional ID Number important? A: It represents your personal identification with Check Point Software Technologies and establishes proof of your certification. You are only allowed one Certified Professional ID number. Q: How do I get my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: It is assigned to you when you register with VUE for the first time to take an exam. It will be in the form CP00000nnnnn. Q: When do I use my Check Point Professional ID Number? A: Whenever you contact VUE to register for another exam session, and whenever you contact Check Point regarding any certification issue. Q: Why do I need to provide an email address? A: An email address is necessary in order to create your User Center account - your access point for certification benefits - as well as keep you up to date with any important changes or updates. Q: If I change jobs, will I still have access to my certification information and benefits? A: Yes! Your certification is yours. However, since your email address is based on your work email you will want to contact Account Services via [email protected] to update your User Center account and request that your information be linked to your new email address. Q: How do I advise Check Point of any change of address or other relevant information? A: You can send your profile updates to [email protected] Back to top Updated September 2016 5 WHAT ABOUT THE BENEFITS Q: I just passed my exams. When can I expect to receive my certificate? A: Check Point now provides e-Certificates that you can access from your User Center profile. Once we receive your exam results we'll update your User Center account with your new credentials, giving you immediate access to your online benefits like Access to SecureKnowledge and your on-line Certification Profile. Q. How do I download the electronic copy of my certification? A: To download your certificate(s), please follow the instructions below. 1. Log into User Center at https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/portal 2. Click "Assets/Info". 3. Click "My Certifications" under "My Info" option. 4. Click "Download" to the right of the certificate to open/save/print. a. Open to print. b. Save to print later. c. Cancel to do nothing. Q: What type of SecureKnowledge access do CCSA's get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSA contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCSE contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCSM get? A: Expert Access for the duration of the CCSM contract. Q: What SecureKnowledge access does a CCMSE get? A: Advanced Access for the duration of the CCMSE contract. Q: How do I access my benefits? A: By setting up a User Centre account based on the email address you used with VUE, you can have access to our Certified Professionals Only web site and to advanced features of Secure Knowledge. Please try the following: If you do not currently have a User Center account, please visit the following URL: https://usercenter.checkpoint.com/usercenter/index.jsp You may reference at the bottom of the page a section titled "New Customers": 1. Click on the hyperlink titled "Sign Up Now!" 2. Begin completing your profile. 3. Use the email ID provided VUE for testing. 4. Set your own password. Q: How do I find the Certified Professionals Only website? A: By clicking on the link https://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/cpo/index.html Q: Do I have access to Check Point online technical support? A: Yes. As a Certified Professional you have Advanced Access to SecureKnowledge, our online technical knowledge database with thousands of solutions, how to articles, and troubleshooting tips to solve your most difficult issues. Q: Are there logos associated with Check Point certifications? A: Yes. As a certified professional you have usage rights to the logo for your certification level. Logos for each Check Point certification are downloadable from the Certified Professional Only website. Updated September 2016 6 Q: Will becoming a Check Point Certified Professional improve my career or employment opportunities? A: Companies hire certified professionals to ensure maximum security and availability of valuable business assets, and know certified professionals are more efficient, productive, and deliver lower total cost of ownership from Check Point solutions. And as one of over 50,000 Check Point Certified Professionals worldwide, you'll get immediate recognition of your experience, knowledge, and abilities while investing in your professional development and security career. Q: Where do I go to access my benefits? A: All benefits are accessed through your User Center account. Create a User Center account now if you don't already have one. If you have any problems with creating your account and linking your certifications, contact [email protected] Q: Why is my certification information not listed in my User Center account? A: Your certification information could not be listed in your User Center account for one of the following reasons: • We tried to activate your benefits but there was no User Center account with the email address we have on file for you. Please check to ensure that the email account you provided VUE for registration matches the email account you used to set up your User Center account. • The benefits you received from a certain Check Point certification have expired. • We might not have received your results from Pearson VUE. If you do not see your benefits or certification listed with your User Center account, send an email to [email protected] and we'll try to resolve the issue for you. Q: What email address should be used when registering for an exam? A: It is important that the email address used when registering for an exam is the email address associated to your User Center profile. This ensures that all certifications are reflected within the User Center and the e-certificate can be downloaded via the account. Q: Can certifications get tied to an alias email address? A: All certifications must be tied to a person-specific email address. Q: How do I update the email address associated to my User Center profile? A: For assistance or the steps of how to update your email address online, please contact our Account Services department for assistance; [email protected] Q: What should I do if my Pearson VUE profile has the wrong email address? A: Please contact Pearson VUE for assistance; http://www.pearsonvue.com/checkpoint/contact/ Back to top TELL ME ABOUT THE EXAMS Q: What is the difference between “low stakes” and “high stakes” exams? A: All Check Point exams are delivered through Pearson VUE. “Low stakes” exams are those delivered over the Internet to your desktop. They do not require attendance at a Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Center (ATC). “High stakes” exams are only delivered at Pearson VUE Authorized Testing Centers (ATC) and delivery meets certain exacting compliance standards. Q: In what order should I take the exams? A: Courses, certifications, and exams are all designed to build on the lessons learned and develop your skills and knowledge, so we recommend starting with CCSA R77 and CCSE R77 to get a core security foundation. From there you can choose the specialization or area of expertise that best matches your job role or career goals. See the complete list of courses, exams, and prerequisites earlier in the FAQ for more information. Updated September 2016 7 Q: How much do the exams cost? A: Exams vary in price between US $150-$200, but exact pricing is available through Pearson VUE. Q: Where can I take a Check Point certification exam? A: Check Point exams are offered through Pearson VUE, a third party testing vendor with over 3,500 testing centers worldwide. Register for your exam at a testing location near you. Q: What is the format of the exams? A: The exams are composed of multiple choice and scenario questions. All questions are “Select the BEST answer” type questions. There are no multiple response. Q: How long are the exams? A: We use a 90-minute exam in all English-speaking countries. Non-English speaking countries receive an additional 30 minutes. Q: How do I know I am ready for an exam? A: If you are preparing for the CCSA certification and want to take the 156-215 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-601 CCSA R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. If you are preparing to complete the CCSE certification and want to take the 156-315 exam, you can determine if you are ready by taking the 156-602 CCSE R77 practice exam. This exam presents 40 questions from a subset of the actual exam pool. Feedback is limited to providing the correct answer during the exam. Q: Are the Check Point certification exams adaptive? A: Check Point has no plans at this time to move into adaptive exams. Q: Do any of the exams contain questions where the correct answer relies on the selection of multiple responses, even though the exam doesn't indicate to check more than one? A: Although the instructions for each exam state that there is one BEST answer, in truth the best answer may be a combination of more than one in the final results. We do this to evaluate how each student reaches their conclusion and makes difficult choices, just like you will be faced with on the job. However, there is no partial credit for incorrectly marked questions. Q: Should I have experience with Check Point products before attempting to pass an exam? A: Surveys of certified professionals suggest that a candidate have one to two years’ experience with the product in a production environment before attempting the CCSA certification. Since that isn’t practical in today’s environment, we recommend six months after training. A similar interval trended when studying the Engineering tasks of a certified CCSE professional. We recommend one year. The new Check Point Security Master certification job profile suggests five years’ experience before challenging the exam. Of course, this varies by individual. Q: Can I take the CCSA and CCSE exams on the same day? A: Yes, you can take the CCSA exam and later that same day, challenge the CCSE exam. Q: Does Check Point have an exam retake policy? A: Yes. If you fail an exam and want to retake it, the following applies: • Wait 24 hours after first unsuccessful attempt • Wait 30 days after each subsequent attempt thereafter Note: Once you pass an exam you cannot take it again. Updated September 2016 8 Q: I have taken the exam twice, and scored exactly the same thing. How is this possible? Is there a problem with the exam or the testing software? A: This is actually quite common, and indicates how reliable Check Point's exams are in testing your knowledge and skills. To create the best certification exams, we focus on consistency and on how an exam will measure competencies. There is a related learning/testing condition called "plateauing". Let's say you've studied hard, practiced the labs and exercises, and absorbed all you can through the current study approach. Studies and experience show you will consistently score the same regardless how much you review the material beyond that point. In this case the best solution for you would be to take a different study approach to gain new insight, and retain more knowledge than you would in just one method - we suggest taking an additional class, or working through some different practice exercises. Q: Does Check Point penalize incorrect answers? A: Check Point does not subtract points from your score for answering a question incorrectly. You will simply not get credit for that question. When taking one of our exams, answer as many questions as you can, even if you are not certain of your answer. Back to top MAINTAINING CURRENCY Q: I wanted to extend my certification by retaking my last exam but got the information from Pearson VUE that I’m not allowed to do so because I’ve already finished that. How do I extend my certification? A: Check Point policy is that you do not retake an exam you have already passed. You either update or upgrade. Ideally, the best course is to take the next higher exam. Q: What is the difference between “Inactive” and “Valid”? A: “Inactive” means that a candidate has not kept their certifications current in an aggressive threat environment. All professional certifications - those taken in a proctored exam environment - are good for, or considered “Current”, for two years. “Valid” refers to the candidate actually having met the requirements for Certification. Q: What are Continuing Education Credits? A: Check Point values lifelong learning. It is essential in an ever changing threat environment. Candidates can acquire Continuing Education Credits by participating in certain events, or by taking certain Low Stakes exams. Candidates are eligible to acquire two Continuing Education credits in a two year certification period Q: What low stakes exams are eligible for Continuing Education Credits? A: Where Check Points High stakes professional exams are primarily focused on performance-based questions, lowstakes exams are focused more on product knowledge and product features. Currently, on the Pearson VUE exam site, the following low stakes exams are available: 156-728 – Gaia Overview 156-729 – Advanced IPS 156-730 – SandBlast 156-733 – Mobile Threat Prevention SE Any two of these will renew your current CCSE certification for one year 1. What are the pre-requisites for the CCSE R75 exam? CCSA R70 or CCSA 71 or CCSA R75. 2. How can I update my R65 certification? If you have any CCSA R60 certification, take the CCSA R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSA certification. If you have a CCSE R60 certification, take the CCSE R70/71 Update Training Blade to update your CCSE certification. 3. How long is my certification valid? Check Point certifications are valid for 2 years. CCMAs are valid for 3 years. Any certification more than three (3) years old is not considered current. Certifications become inactive after five years. Your benefits may be suspended if your certification is not current. Your certification can be maintained with annual continuing education credits. 4. What are ‘continuing education credits’? Continuing education credits help you maintain Check Point certifications without starting over with every product release. Continuing education credits can be earned in a variety of ways like completing shorter training lessons (Training Blades), by participating in our test development process, and even attending CPX. 5. What are the pre-requisites for CCMA? CCSE is mandatory; CCMSE is suggested. 6. Do you have a test-out option? Though highly recommended, it is not a requirement to attend a training course before challenging the exam. You may test at any time, however it is advised you spend at least 6 months working with Check Point products before attempting to achieve certification. 7. Are study materials available? Free study guides and practice exams are available for download at http://www.checkpoint.com/services/education/index.html#resources. Courseware can be purchased on our eStore and Training is available from an ATC. 8. How soon can I re-take an exam if I fail? If you fail an exam you must wait 24 hours before your 2nd attempt, and 30 days for the 3rd attempt. Once you pass a test you cannot take it again for a higher score. 9. Can I get exam insurance? Students automatically get a 50% re-take discount on any 2nd attempt of the CCSA and CCSE R75 exams. 10. I only failed by 1 point and based on my calculations I should have passed – what happened? The function of certification is to provide proof the Check Point Certified professional is qualified to protect the lifeblood of organizations – their data. Check Point takes this very seriously and we constantly strive to administer the most effective exams. Passing is calculated by comparing the number of questions answered correctly versus the number of questions answered incorrectly. Not all sections of the test are weighted equally. ©2012 Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. . Classification: [Unrestricted] — For everyone | P. 2 11. Can I take any R65 level exams? No, all R65 exams have been retired except for the Japanese versions. Our philosophy is to provide training and certification only for current technologies so our partners and customers will always benefit from the latest security advancements. 12. Where can I find more information about Check Point Certified Professionals? The Check Point Certified Professionals website and newsletter are a benefit which contain special information and resources that are not available to the public. 13. What happens when I pass my exam? When will I receive my Certificate? After you pass a Check Point exam at VUE, your exam results are uploaded. On the 15th and 30th, we process all certification results and order certification kits. It takes 6-8 weeks to receive your certificate. Your advanced access to Secure Knowledge and the Certified Professionals website is established once you achieve certification. 14. Why can’t I have more than one account at Pearson VUE test centers? Check Point only allows one Pearson VUE account to track your Check Point exams. If you change companies, please update the contact information in your Pearson VUE account instead of creating a new one so your Check Point certifications will follow you. You can verify your accounts with Customer Service here http://www.vue.com/checkpoint/contact/ 15. What happens if someone gets caught cheating? How do you prevent it? Every individual who takes an exam signs our Non-disclosure agreement. Anyone caught in the act of cheating or sharing exam items will have their Check Point certifications revoked for 2 years. All testing privileges and partner program participation will be deactivated during this time. Check Point collaborates with major technology companies to prevent cheating through test pattern analysis and distribution best practices. Together we identify and take legal action against unauthorized test centers and inaccurate “brain dump” sites. 16. What are the benefits of Check Point certification? Check Point Certified Professionals receive access to the Advanced SecureKnowledge base, Certified Professionals only website and quarterly newsletter for 2 years. Check Point Certified Master Architects (CCMA) receive 3 years Expert level access to SecureKnowledge. 17. How do I access my certification benefits? Make sure your Check Point User Center (UC) email address matches the email address registered with Pearson VUE. Your UC profile will automatically be updated with each certification, including advanced access to SecureKnowledge and the Certified Professionals only website. Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80 Today, managing security is a complex endeavor. The key to managing this complexity is through security consolidation – bringing all security protections and functions under one umbrella. With R80 management, security consolidation is fully realized. This three-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage the daily operations of your Check Point infrastructure with R80. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install R80 management and a security gateway in a distributed environment Configure objects, rules, and settings to define a security policy Work with multiple concurrent administrators and define permission profiles Configure a Virtual Private Network and work with Check Point clustering Perform periodic administrator tasks as specified in administrator job descriptions Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Implement Check Point backup techniques Exam Information Exam# 156-215.80 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Security Policy Management Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations Basic Concepts of VPN Managing User Access Working with ClusterXL Administrator Task Implementation Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account Pearson VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R77.30 Advance your knowledge on the GAiA operating system! 3-day course covers everything you need to start-up, configure and manage daily operations of Check Point Security Gateway and Management Software Blades systems on the GAiA operating system. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Install the security gateway in a distributed environment Configure rules on Web and Gateway servers Create a basic rule base in SmartDashboard and assign permissions Schedule backups and seamless upgrades with minimal downtime Monitor and troubleshoot IPS and common network traffic Prerequisites Basic knowledge of networking Windows Server and/or UNIX skills Internet and TCP/IP experience How You Will Benefit Be prepared to defend against network threats Evaluate existing security policies and optimize the rule base Manage user access to corporate LANs Monitor suspicious network activities and analyze attacks Troubleshoot network connections Protect email and messaging content Exam Information Exam# 156-215.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products recommended Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit CCSA’s rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to implement the latest network security advancements Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Security Engineering (Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE) R77.30) Advanced 3-day course teaches how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems on the GAiA operating system. Hands-on lab exercises teach how to debug firewall processes, optimize VPN performance and upgrade Management Servers. See course description TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC DOWNLOAD STUDY GUIDE Course Description Learn How To Backup your Security Gateway and Management Server Build, test and troubleshoot a clustered Security Gateway Upgrade and troubleshoot a Management Server Configure and maintain security acceletration solutions Manage, test and optimize corporate VPN tunnels Prerequisites Security Administration Course or CCSA certification (R70 or later) Windows Server, UNIX and networking skills and TCP/IP experience Certificate management and system adminstration How You Will Benefit Build, test and troublehoot numerous deployment scenarios Apply insider tips troubleshooting Check Point Security Systems Practice advanced upgrading techniques Migrate to a clustering security solution Create events for compliance reporting Manage internal and external access to corporate resources Exam Information EXAM #156-315.77 What You Need To Know Check Point Technology Overview Deployment Platforms and Security Policies Monitoring Traffic and Connections Network Address Translations User Management and Authentication Using SmartUpdate Implementing Identity Awareness Configuring VPN tunnels Resolving security administration issues Prerequisites CCSA Certification – R70 or later Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account Get Ready Download the study guide Search for training from your local ATC Schedule your exam at VUE test centers Update Exam UPDATE EXAM #156-915.77 What You Need To Know If you have any CCSE certification, you can save time and maintain your certification with the CCSE Update exam! The CCSE Update only tests your knowledge on the latest product release. To prepare you should train or study the full CCSE course. Prerequisites CCSE Certification – any previous version Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account MDSM with VSX (Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension) 5-day advanced course teaches how to design, install, configure and manage Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension. TRAINING CALENDAR SCHEDULE YOUR EXAM SEARCH FOR YOUR LOCAL ATC Course Description Learn How To Install, configure and troubleshoot Multi-Domain Security Managment Configure and implement a Global Policy Transition and consolidate physcial firewalls to a virtualized environment Prerequisites CCSE or equivalent experience Check Point User Center account VUE Test Center account How You Will Benefit Consolidate multiple firewalls onto a single management platform Convert a security management server to a domain management server Use advanced migration tools to quickly migrate existing configurations Apply common troubleshooting best practices Implement MDS High-Availaibility Exam Information Exam #156-820.77 What You Need To Know Install, configure and manage the MDM environment Discribe common deployment scenarios Describe the traffic inspection process Configure DMS High Availability Configure and implement a Global Policy Apply common troubleshooting practices Prerequisites CCSE R75 or later 6 months to 1 year of experience with Check Point products Check Point User Center account How You Will Benefit Check Point Certified Professionals rank higher than other security vendor professionals Validation you have the skills to manage enterprise security deployments Certified Professionals community, newsletter and special web access Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM) R77.30 Our most advanced technical 3-day course teaches how to use advanced commands to configure and troubleshoot Check Point Security Systems. 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